Antibiotics And The Mode Of Action

Technically, an antibiotic is a substance that is produced by one microorganism and it is capable of killing or inhibiting the growth of another microorganism which can a virus, bacteria, fungi, yeast, protozoan or any other pathogen.

The first antibiotic that was developed was Penicillin, a biological compound that is produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium. It was discovered by Alexander Fleming in the year 1928. After that, several other types of antibiotics produced by different species of bacteria and fungi were isolated. Some of these include cephalosporins; aminoglycosides such as streptomycin, gentamicin and kanamycin; ansamycins such as geldanamycin and carabecephems; glycopeptides like vancomycin; macrolides like erythromycin and azithromycin, penicillin, quinolone, polypeptide and sulfonamide.

All these antibiotics have different mode of action by which they act as therapeutic agents. Some of the modes of action by different antibiotics are mentioned below:

Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors:

Bacteria contain murein or peptidoglycan that is highly essential in maintaining the cell wall structure. Cell wall synthesis inhibitors such as beta-lactams, cephalosporins and glycopeptides block the ability of microorganisms to synthesize their cell wall by inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycan.

Interfering with Protein Synthesis:

These classes of antibiotics inhibit the protein synthesis machinery in the cell. Some examples include tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides and macrolides.

Cell Membrane Inhibitors:

Antibiotics such as polymyxins disrupt the integrity and structure of cell membranes, thereby killing them. These set of antibiotics are mostly effective on gram negative bacteria because these are the bacteria that contain a definite cell membrane.

Effect on Nucleic Acids:

DNA and RNA are extremely essential nucleic acids present in every living cell. Antibiotics such as quinolones and rifamycins bind to the proteins that are required for the processing of DNA and RNA, thus blocking their synthesis and thereby affecting the growth of the cells.

Competitive Inhibitors:

Also referred to as anti-metabolites or growth factor analogs, these are antibiotics that competitively inhibit the important metabolic pathways occurring inside the bacterial cell. Important ones in this class are sulfonamides such as Gantrisin and Trimethoprim.

Mental Capacities Affected With Age, Improved With Practice

They cause family members to be concerned about the ability of seniors to be left at home alone where they could wander off, lose track of time and location or forget important things like paying bills or personal hygiene.

According to findings of a recent study conducted by a psychologist at the University of Virginia, mental abilities decrease with age. Crystallized intelligence and vocabulary usage decline over time. Also notable in the study was the concept that seniors’ recognition levels are higher with practice and repetition. Another study, one conducted by scientists at the University of California in San Francisco, found that seniors who participated in brain training activities with computer games were able to improve their short-term cognitive abilities.

In direct correlation with these scientific studies, it is often believed that seniors should engage in regular mental fitness exercises. This helps them to stay mentally active, be more independent and live a safer lifestyle. While these activities go above and beyond the traditional services provided by senior home health care services, they are available. Certain at-home health care companies provide non medical care for their clients that helps them to improve their mental capacities. They participate in activities such as playing cards and board games, reading books and magazines and attending plays, lecture series and musical concerts.

Those suffering from the effects of Alzheimer’s, dementia and other mentally debilitating chronic conditions need extra supervision to ensure their safety and quality of life. Healthcare providers should have additional training to help them handle the special situations that arise with these patients. This advanced interaction focuses on enriching life by focusing on the spirit, mind, body and family of the individual. Those with specialized at-home senior care are less likely to be in danger and more likely to stay engaged in social and mental activities.

Some of the symptoms of senile dementia and Alzheimer’s disease include loss of attention span, loss of vision or hearing, confusion as to where and when they are, and difficulty in identifying people and things that should be familiar. Some seniors may exhibit inappropriate behavior or poor judgment that is unusual for them. Others may become easily agitated or emotional charged. Difficulty with short-term memory and math problems are also common.

A Detailed Insight on Symptoms of Piles

This condition is classified into two types which are:

  • Internal Piles: The internal piles occur within the rectum are not painful due to lack of sensing nerves. At times, it collapses and protrudes outside anal sphincter, which appears like moist pads of skin. This prolapsed haemorrhoids and can be treated with laser surgery for piles.
  • External Piles: The external piles are present in the anus and thus can be more uncomfortable. When this prolapses outside (due to the movement of stool) they become visible. Blood clots occur on them, leading to a painful stage known as thrombosis. When the external piles get thromboses it turns from pink to blue and could even bleed.

What Are The Causes of Piles?

An individual at any age can be the victim of piles. It is a common diseases, that affects over 50% of the people at some point or the other. However, they are usually seen during pregnancy or elderly age, when the haemorrhoids become weak. No matter what the cause behind this condition might be, getting the best piles treatment is of utmost importance.

The four situations that increases the chance of developing piles include:

  • Chronic Constipation
  • Ageing
  • Hereditary factors and
  • Pregnancy

In chronic constipation, excess pressure is applied on the rectum making the veins push against the wall of anus, resulting into feeble and weak anus muscles. This ruptures the haemorrhoids which bleeds making stools even tougher to eject. It is often accompanied with pain and sensitivity. In case of ageing, the tissues present across the lining area get less supportive and affect the haemorrhoids veins.

Similarly, in pregnancy the pressure of baby lying in the anus and rectum breaks the veins and causes piles. Other than that, in certain cases people have inherited weakness at the anal region that makes them prone to this condition.

Know More About the Symptoms of Piles

It must be noted that the symptoms of pile do vary and is influenced by the cause and nature of the condition.

Some of the common signs that are often faced by people are:

  • A feeling of hard lump at the anus region. It is usually coagulated blood that is often seen in external piles.
  • Bright red blood comes out after bowel movement
  • Discharge of mucus when bowels pas
  • A feeling of having full bowel, even after going to the toilet
  • Area around the anus turns sore and red and
  • Itchiness and inflammation at the affected area

A good practice is to consult with a doctor immediately when you come across at least two or more signs of piles.

Fitness Tips

It is almost the end of the year. If one of your new year’s resolutions is physical fitness, I have a few tips that can help.

1) Focus on positive thinking. When you can keep up with your physical fitness plan, you should congratulate yourself every time. It is not easy to keep up with fitness plan. You really need to have a strong will. Be proud of yourself.

2) When you fall back from your fitness schedule, you should not berate yourself. Some people are too hard on themselves, and they never start over again. Your physical fitness New Year’s resolutions are the promise to yourself. They are not the test of your willpower.

3) You should stay away from unhealthy temptation as much as possible. If you are on the diet, you do not want to keep a huge bucket of ice cream in your refrigerator. It can only make your life harder.

4) Be realistic. Some people expect to achieve physical fitness over night. They make fitness plans that are impossible to keep. Realistic physical fitness plan must fit into your lifestyle. You must ask yourself, “Can I really go out for a run every evening?” If the answer is “No”, you may want to rethink your new year’s resolutions. If you know that you can not do them every evening, you may be able to do them twice a week.

5) Try to keep your resolutions with a friend. You can help encourage each other. A good friend will make your fitness resolutions fun.

Is Your Health Portfolio Balanced?

We are all aware of the need to balance our financial portfolio so that in times of hardship or when disaster strikes — stock market drops, pink slips, etc — we will be affected by financial challenges as little as possible. Having a substantial bank account allows us many opportunities that people with lesser financial savvy and preparation must for ego.

Perhaps you are at a “comfortable” financial level, able to pay off bills and credit cards timely, and have enough disposable income to enjoy a good quality of life. Perhaps you enjoy an “extremely high” financial level, with unending “toys”, travel when and where you want, and other opportunities for the “good life”. Either way you are able to handle sudden financial challenges and able to take advantage of financial opportunities as they come your way. Feels good, doesn’t it?

But what about your health portfolio? When faced with challenges such as a cold, flu season, children’s ear infections, etc. do you just accept them as part of life? What about when disaster strikes in the form of a serious health challenge to you or a family member. Is your health bank account equipped to fight back?

In the United States, the average age of disability (when quality of life becomes so poor that you need help for daily activities of living) is 65 years old. Modern medicine is providing miracles in keeping us alive longer — increasing our “lifespan”. But what about the quality of our lives? If we want to continue our “health span” along with our “lifespan”, it is imperative to raise the level of our health bank account as well as balance our health portfolio.

If you think the cost of health care has gone through the roof now, wait until the majority of baby boomers reach the “age of disability”. Now is the time to take a serious look at your own health bank account and ask “Do I have all the energy I need each day?”, “What is my ‘cushion’ in case of serious illness?” and “Does my health portfolio need balancing?”

Healthy Heart Wisdom

Finally, the heart health experts agree with grandma’s adage. Her wisdom no longer goes against the medical code. Well known for her common sense wisdom, grandma would often say that an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure. Anyone who has experienced an avoidable life altering event such as hospitalization due to a drinking binge, a severed toe from a whizzing lawn mower blade or a car crash while reading a text message will quickly tell you that “grandma” was right.

After much observation, investigation, and thousands of case studies the researchers believe that grandma’s philosophy holds the key to many of our current health care woes. They have proven that it is easier to prevent certain diseases than it is to cure them. Prevention has also proven to be the most effective way to reduce rising health care costs. It has become the preferred option for clinicians and patients alike. The new paradigm of preventative medicine has virtually replaced the old paradigm of disease state medicine as a first choice approach. The older approach focused primarily on the disease state,its management, and treatment.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now claim that more than 75% of our diseases are preventable or reversible. Although many of us are seeking ways to take charge of our health profiles and improve our health status, the majority still fail miserably when it comes to reducing our risk for certain cancers, heart disease, and diabetes. In our quest for a preventative lifestyle change we often find ourselves imprisoned by the shackles of habit and ignorance.

In the Ancient text, Proverbs tells us that desire without knowledge is not good. Behavioral science has demonstrated that inspiration without information leads to frustration, and ultimately failure. Because most of us don’t understand why, we often choose behaviors that are counter- preventative, and become victims who can only react to a health crisis.

To achieve a lasting preventative life style change requires a clear understanding of the urgency for change. This is means more than “knowing your numbers”. It means knowing what your uncontrollable and controllable risk factors for heart disease are. Ask your health care professional what your numbers are and what they mean. Then follow your health care professional’s advice.Let this insight into your health status(risks vs outcomes) become the motivation to make for change that is necessary and lasting.

Health Travel to Mexico Growing Due to Availability of Safe, Affordable, High-Quality Options

With the skyrocketing costs of health care, the issue of health travel or “medical tourism” has been generating lots of buzz in the media. Within the last few weeks, stories about health travel have hit the pages of publications like US News & World, the New York Times, and the Wall Street Journal, detailing how health travel offers people high quality health care at a price far more affordable than the US. It’s a benefit without boundaries – meaning, the cost savings are for anyone who wants them, including the thousands of insured who are nevertheless facing higher premiums, reduced coverage, and higher out-of-pocket deductibles and co-payments.

While much of the press has focused on exotic locales like India, Mexico is actually the most common destination for Americans traveling for health care. Last year alone more than 50,000 Americans traveled to Mexico seeking everything from heart surgery, hip replacement, cosmetic dentistry, cosmetic surgery procedures, preventive screenings and even homeopathic health treatments. Mexico is widely recognized for its number of leading gastroenterology (weight loss) surgeons.

In its study Medical Tourism: Consumers In Search of Value, Deloitte estimates the number of medical travelers is expected to reach 6 million per year in 2009. The growth is not surprising – the typical medical traveler receive outstanding quality health care at significantly lower cost over U.S. pricing.

For example, in Mexico, weight loss surgery ranges from $6,000-$11,500 vs. the $25-35,000 price tag in the U.S. Hip replacement is $10,000-$12,000, compared to $60,000+ in the U.S. A $100,000 angioplasty in the U.S. is $25,000 in Mexico – featuring a surgeon who regularly spends at least three months of his operating time in the U.S.

Mexico offers the additional benefit of having direct flights from many U.S cities, and most surgeons are fluent in English as well as Spanish. The hospitals that welcome medical tourists are sleek, modern affairs featuring amenities such as patient suites, sushi restaurants and a medical traveler concierge, while even newer, more sophisticated hospitals continue to be built.

Do your research to find the medical tourism company that best suits your needs. There are companies that guide patients through the process of getting medical treatment abroad, handling every detail of your trip – from insurance to financing, arranging for air travel, accommodations, appointments, transportation to and from your procedure and even keeping you in touch with friends and family.

What Is Health Care?

What is Health? A good question every one have there opinion, but from my point of view health is combination of physically, mentally and socially strong. It’s means a men that is Physically strong can not be called that he is healthy similarly all the three things must be present in a men that it is called a healthy men.

For physically strong there are things that have to be done are regular exercise, proper diet and nutrition and also proper rest for physical recovery. And a men is called Mentally strong when he is individual’s emotional and psychological well-being. And socially depends upon the well culture and behavior towards other comes in this.

We can guess about a man is mentally healthy depends upon how effectively and successfully a person functions. Now we take little thing about the Nutrition. Nutrition is science that helps to get the reason that affects to men for their health and performance, such as foods or food components that cause diseases or deteriorate health. Just like the food that the men eating have enough protein and another balance diet just like if we take a food that have too much calories, which have bed effects just like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease would increase other thing that also effects the health is Hygiene.

Hygiene keeps the body clean to prevent infection and illness. There are some rules regarding these just like bathing, brushing and flossing teeth, washing hands. Stress also play there roles in Health a mentally strong people have tolerance to stress. Lot of stress also effect health another factor to keep people healthy is natural health means self-care system of natural therapies concerned with building and restoring health at end a say Health science.

Health Care: Health science is the science that is focused on health care, and science have many rules or we can call them sub disciplines. Combination of both is called as total health care. There are mainly two approaches to health science one is study and other is research of the human body.

Read this Article if You Want Affordable Health Care Insurance

One of the number one concerns of employees these days in health care insurance for themselves and their families and not just any healthcare insurance but affordable too. Are you paying too much to protect your family? You are aren’t you and it is a concern of yours too isn’t it? Indeed and you are not alone in fact a recent survey in Human Resource Magazine indicated the it was the number one concern even more than salary to corporate hires by over a two to one margin.

One problem is the over litigiousness in the healthcare industry partly due to high costs of regulatory compliance and partly due to the incessant litigation of Mal-practice on doctors, thus causing them to raise their prices to afford insurance and therefore higher costs to folks like you.

Many times employers offer various choices that you can choose from and you have to study each plan carefully to make sure if it fits your needs. But what if you are self-employed then what do you do? Well there are many choices for self-employed folks, but you again need to study all the possible options so you can get the right policy that is best for you. Think on this.

The Health Care Crisis in a Faltering Economy

Many American’s are writing their health care out of their budget due to the uncertain economy. The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a poll, which showed that 53 percent of participants said that they or someone in their family has cut back on health care because of the high costs associated with it. Especially for American’s who are out of work, not having coverage can send health care costs skyrocketing with bills piling up rather quickly. The poll also indicates that more people are turning to home remedies and over the counter drugs, as opposed to seeking the help of a physician. Lastly, more American’s are not filling prescriptions and/or avoiding medical tests or treatments in order to just get by.

A few things that will help you save money is to request your own records and do it well in advance of your doctors appointment, Take note of any changes you have had in the last six months and write everything down before your visit, so you don’t forget to ask any important questions. Essentially, get the most out of one appointment as possible. Ask your doctor for free samples of any prescriptions to help keep costs down and ask about cheaper generic alternatives to your current medications.

American’s do have an option to ask for financial help as many hospitals and clinics usually have financial assistance programs. Some doctors, like Feltheimer of New York Presbyterian, lowers his fees to $50.00 for patients’ who are out of work or uninsured. Many doctors will work out a payment schedules, so do not hesitate to ask what your physician’s policies are. People with chronic or debilitating disease such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis, can access the Patient Advocate Foundation. They provide help negotiating with insurers and helps people get the most out of their health plan. There are no financial requirements to qualify, so call (800) 532-5274 to be assigned a case manager.